Galović, Tomislav

“Sancti Gregorii monasterium, cui Urana est uocabulum” / Galović, Tomislav. - 239-255 str.

The paper briefly recaps an evaluates the existing knowledge about one of the most famous monasteries on the soil of medieval Croatian state- the Benedictine monastery of St. Gregory in Vrana (sancti Gregorii monasterium, cui Urana estuocabulum). It is very well-known that the Benedictine monks and nuns (Ordo Sancti Benedicti), their numerous abbeys ie. monasteries, priorats, and hospices, in the Middle Ages- inspired by the work of their founder and guided by his Rule (Regula) – both in spreading the Gospel and the development of European literature-upbringing and education- played a key role and, moreover, were instigators of various movements in the field of culture, science and art, music and literature, as well as in the development of agriculture, crafts, etc. Their monasteries became genuine intellectual centres of the Middle Ages. However, they themselves had their ups and downs. As regards Croatia, this oldest Western European monastic community represents a source of language and written culture of the Croats. In the wider area of Biograd, several churches are known, in which, according to the Rule of their founder, the Benedictine monks and nuns prayed and worked (ora et labora). These were the male monasteries of the Order of St. Benedict- St. John the Evangelist in Biograd, and later St. Cosmas and Damian in Ćorkovac near Tkon on the island of Pašman, as the real and legal successor of the first above-mentioned, and the monastery of St. Gregory in Vrana, and the female Benedictine monasteries of St. Thomas in Biograd and St. Peter's in Bubnjani. Among these, the monastery of St. Gregory in Vrana (sancti Gregorii monasterium, cui Urana estuocabulum) occupies an important place because it was, after all, such as for instance, St. John the Evangelist and St. Thomas in Biograd, a royal monastery– monasterium regale. Unfortunately, we have very few data about the Vrana Benedictine monastery of St. Gregory- in actuality, all we know about it has been taken from the only, and for this reason, extremely important and to us precious royal document- in historiography called Zvonimir's statement of oath. This was a document from 1076, by which, on the occasion of his crowning in the Church of St. Peter (and Moses) in Solin, the previous Duke/ Prince of Herzeg Croatia and Dalmatia, ie. Croatian King Demetrius Zvonimir swore allegiance to the Apostolic See and conceded to paying an annual tribute of 200 ducats, made a gift of, handed it over, and confirmed the monastery of St. Gregory in Vrana, with all its treasure, as well as movable and immovable possessions. However, it should be noted that, unfortunately, the original of this document has not been preserved, and today, all we have at our disposal are later manuscripts, kept in the Vatican Apostolic Library (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana) and the Secret Vatican Archives (Archivio Segreto Vaticano). The content of the oath of King Demetrius Zvonimir to Gregory VIIth clearly manifested the dierctions of the papal reform policies, and the royal gift of the monastery- “ the first diplomatic mission as far as we know it, with the extraterritorial status of our region“- was an obvious sign of Zvonimir's support for such aspirations and their active participation in them. In comparison to the historiography, systematic archaeological and other research of the Vrana complex, as a precondition of any further knowledge, has unfortunately completely failed to to have been carried out. In conclusion, we may say that only future archaeological excavations of the Vrana region- the fortress-which is rightly believed to have been the location of St. Gregory's monastery in the early Middle Ages, will shed more light on its beginnings and life in, for the monastery in all respects, crucial time of the second half of the 11th century and the first decades of the 12th century, ie. the arrival of the Templars (Pauperes Commilitones Christi templique Salomonis or Fratres militiae templi) and later the knights Hospitallers (Ordo militiae Sancti Ioannis Baptistae hospitalis Hierosolymitani or Ordo fratrum hospitaliorum Hierosolymitanorum). -

U radu se u osnovnim crtama rekapituliraju i valoriziraju dosadašnje spoznaje o jednom od najznačajnih samostana na tlu ranosrednjovjekovne hrvatske države. Riječ je o benediktinskom samostanu sv. Grgura u Vrani (sancti Gregorii monasterium, cui Urana est uocabulum), koji je godine 1076. hrvatski kralj Dmitar Zvonimir (1076. – 1089.) ustupio s čitavim njegovim blagom, pokretninama i nepokretnim dobrima Apostolskoj Stolici da bude gostinjac/rezidencija poslanicima svetoga Petra zauvijek i posve u njezinoj vlasti. Nažalost, povijesni izvori o ovome samostanskom zdanju, o njegovu utemeljenju i ranome periodu svode se svega na jedan diplomatički izvor – tzv. Zvonimirovu zavjernicu, koja je bila i ostala u središtu pozornosti svih autora koji su istraživali njegovu povijest, dok su sustavna arheološka i druga istraživanja – preduvjet bilo kakvih novih spoznaja – nažalost, gotovo posve izostala.


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