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Quedam Helena regina..... / Matijević Sokol, Mirjana ; Sokol, Vladimir.

By: Matijević-Sokol, Mirjana.
Contributor(s): Sokol, Vladimir [aut].
Material type: materialTypeLabelArticleDescription: 415-431.ISSN: 0350-7165.Other title: Quedam Helena regina [Naslov na engleskom:].Subject(s): 6.03 | 6.04 | Historia Salonitana, Toma Arhiđakon, kraljica Jelena, epitaf, Solin, Otok, naušnice, groblja hrv | Historia Salonitana, Thomas the Archdeacon, Queen Jelena, epitaph, Solin, Island, jewellery/earrings, cemeteries engOnline resources: Click here to access online In: Vjesnik Arheološkog muzeja u Zagrebu XLIII (2010.), str. 415-431Summary: U djelu poznatom pod nazivom Salonitanska povijest (Historia Salonitana) pisca Tome Arhiđakona Splićanina iz XIII. st. jedan ulomak iz XVI. poglavlja De promotione Laurentii archiepiscopi odnosi se na hrvatsku kraljicu Jelenu koja je u Solinu sagradila crkve sv. Stjepana i sv. Marije i poklonila ih crkvi sv. Dujma odnosno splitskoj nadbiskupiji. U istom se ulomku kaže da su u atriju crkve sv. Stjepana pokopani mnogi kraljevi i kraljice, a izričito se spominje „velmožni muž Krešimir“ (magnificus uir Cresimirus). Do otkrića epitafa kraljice Jelene 1898. godine na Otoku u Solinu nije se znalo o kojoj je kraljici riječ. Na temelju kronoloških i drugih egzaktnih podataka iz natpisa, kraljica Jelena iz Salonitanske povijesti identificirana je kao žena kralja Mihaela Krešimira i majka kralja Stjepana Držislava. U radu se autori osvrću na podatke iz Salonitanske povijesti, razmatraju neke paleografsko-epigrafske značajke epitafa te predlažu restituciju jednog od ulomaka kojemu ranije nije bio prepoznat izvorni položaj. Također se na temelju arheoloških nalaza materijalne kulture, poglavito nakita iz grobišta osvrću na prostorno-demografsku sliku Solina u vrijeme kraljice Jelene.
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A section of the 16th chapter (De promotione Laurentii archiepiscopi) of the Archdeacon Thomas’Historia Salonitana (13th c.) refers to the Croatian Queen Helen, who built the churches of St Stephen and St Mary in Solin and then donated them to the church of St Domnio, that is, to the Split archdioceses. The same fragment mentions that many kings and queens were buried in the atrium of St Stephen’s church, specifically mentioning the »magnificent gentleman Kre{;imir« (magnificus uir Cresimirus). Before the discovery of Queen Helen’s epitaph in 1898 on the island (Otok) in Solin it was not known to which queen Toma Archdeacon was referring to, especially as the Historia Salonitana mentions Queen Helen in the context of events taking place during the reign of King Zvonimir as a »certain Queen Helen« (quedam Helena regina). Since it is known from other sources that King Zvonimir’s wife was also called Helen, only the discovery of the epitaph on Otok in Solin solved all uncertainties. Based on chronological and other exact information in the inscription – restored with great effort and knowledge by don Frane Buli}; – the Queen Helen from the Historia Salonitana was identified with the wife of KingMichael Kre{;imir and the mother of King Stephen Dr`islav, buried in 976. Queen Helen’s inscription shows multiple similarities with the epitaph of Split’s archbishop Martin from the same period and it can be assumed that they both had the same author, the first still anonymous poet, a priest with a good knowledge of the Bible. Based on recognized palaeographic and epigraphic characteristics fragment 1 from Buli};’s drawing with a supposed grapheme H can be incorporated into the restored text of the inscription. Until now there was supposed to be no space for it, but now it is suggested that the beginning of the inscription reads thus: HOC IN TUMULO ; HOC TUMULO (less possible due to the larger space available) or HIC IN TUMULO. This makes the inscription more correct and legible, and there is now one unplaced fragment less. Thomas the Archdeacon composed his text based on several sources. Through an analysis of diplomatic texts, which was a privileges conferred by King Zvonimir on the Split archdiocese, it is concluded that Thomas preserved the core of one of King Zvonimir’s charters from 1079/1080, in which the bequest of Queen Helen is returned to the Split church. Adeeper analysis of Thoma’s text suggests that perhaps Queen Helen herself issued as an author and investor the privilege containing the legal act of conferring her bequest on the Split archdiocese. Early mediaeval archaeological records of the Solin area are also very interesting. Anumber of early Croatian necropolises and settlements are located in a wide arch encompassing ancient Salona – Queen Helen’s Solin. Based on archaeological finds of material remains, especially jewellery from graves, a spatial and demographical picture of Solin from the period of Queen Helen can be reconstructed. A dominant artefact of the 10th c., single-bead filigree hair loops, with a richly decorated bead surface made of precious metals, is found in most of the cemeteries in Croatia, from Vinodol through central Dinaric areas to the southern Sava region, this could have been worn by the Croatian Queen Helen. This kind of jewellery was found in Solin necropolises, but also in the mausoleum in Biskupija-Crkvina in graves of the members of the – most probably – ruling family. M. MATIJEVI] SOKOL – V. SOKOL: Quedam Helena regina, VAMZ, 3.s., XLIII 415–431 (2010) 429 Anthropological analysis of the deceased buried in the western necropolis of Solin, as well as the cemetery in Mravince, suggests that the population inhabiting the Solin area in the early mediaeval period belonged to the (Nin) Polish population, and, by analogy, molecular-biologically to northern peoples, according to the older nomenclature EU 7 and EU 19, with a main area of distribution on the Baltic-Polish platform. The construction of the queen’s final resting-place is also a subject of discussion, was it a sarcophagus, which is the common opinion, or, analogous to the occurrence of Westwork in Biskupija, a tomb-aedicule, since it had all ready been stated that the supposed sarcophagus was too small for an adult. Thus in Biskupija there is an added – or constructed contemporaneously with the main edifice –Westwork with »passages« in the thickened wall and the burial of a »prince« – other ones collapsed with time. It is obvious that on the island of Otok we are dealing with a similar burial in a grave-aedicule, because the remains of »other parts of the sarcophagus« were not found. The grave of Vekenega, is a similar case built into a wall of the chapter house of St Mary’s monastery in Zadar. All these facts represent a unique architectural complex of the tombs of Croatian elites on the eastern shore of the Adriatic.

U djelu poznatom pod nazivom Salonitanska povijest (Historia Salonitana) pisca Tome Arhiđakona Splićanina iz XIII. st. jedan ulomak iz XVI. poglavlja De promotione Laurentii archiepiscopi odnosi se na hrvatsku kraljicu Jelenu koja je u Solinu sagradila crkve sv. Stjepana i sv. Marije i poklonila ih crkvi sv. Dujma odnosno splitskoj nadbiskupiji. U istom se ulomku kaže da su u atriju crkve sv. Stjepana pokopani mnogi kraljevi i kraljice, a izričito se spominje „velmožni muž Krešimir“ (magnificus uir Cresimirus). Do otkrića epitafa kraljice Jelene 1898. godine na Otoku u Solinu nije se znalo o kojoj je kraljici riječ. Na temelju kronoloških i drugih egzaktnih podataka iz natpisa, kraljica Jelena iz Salonitanske povijesti identificirana je kao žena kralja Mihaela Krešimira i majka kralja Stjepana Držislava. U radu se autori osvrću na podatke iz Salonitanske povijesti, razmatraju neke paleografsko-epigrafske značajke epitafa te predlažu restituciju jednog od ulomaka kojemu ranije nije bio prepoznat izvorni položaj. Također se na temelju arheoloških nalaza materijalne kulture, poglavito nakita iz grobišta osvrću na prostorno-demografsku sliku Solina u vrijeme kraljice Jelene.

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Projekt MZOS 130-1300637-0647

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