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Grammar and Lexicon / Peti-Stantić, Anita.

By: Peti-Stantić, Anita.
Material type: ArticleArticleDescription: str.Other title: Grammar and Lexicon [Naslov na engleskom:].Subject(s): 6.03 | | Online resources: Click here to access online In: Psycho- and neurolinguistic approaches to the grammar- lexicon distinctionSummary: Although classic generative approaches build on the differentiation between the lexicon and the grammar, there are many theories (Cognitive Grammar, Langacker 1987 ; Emergent Grammar, Hopper 1987 ; Construction Grammar, Goldberg 1995, 2006 ; Parallel Architecture, Jackendoff 2002), particular insights (Schönefeld 2001 ; Haspelmath 2007, 2014), as well as experimental approaches (Bates and Goodman 1997 ; Hilpert 2008) that advocate the inseparability of grammar and lexicon. All of them depart from the principle distinction between the rules and the lexemes. The rules are no more treated as procedures, but as templates or schemas (pieces of structure with variables), which brings them closer to lexemes. Parallel Architecture, theoretical framework we work in, takes linguistic structure to be determined by three independent generative systems - phonology, syntax, and semantics, as well as the links between them. In PA there is no strict division between the lexicon and the grammar. Rather, words and standard rules are at the opposite corners of a multidimensional continuum that includes all sorts of mixed items such as idioms and meaningful constructions. Important consequence of this view is that semantics in not necessarily in a one-to-one relation to syntax, but most often in many-to-many relation, which needs to be explicitly stated. What that means is that at the sentence level, phonology, semantics and syntax are not derived from each other. Their mutual relations are established through interface rules, which are in some cases exhaustive and in others subject to variability. At the word level, every lexical item is a triple consisting of small pieces of phonological, syntactic and semantic structure (Jackendoff, 2002). That makes words prototypical interface rules. PA provides a framework for systematic treatment of both content words and function words as interface rules. Based on broadly understood agreement potential, we explore the applicability of the PA as a theoretical base for determining the set of necessary categorical relations within the lexicon, both at the morphosyntactic, as well as at the semantic level. First, in order to track down the features that need to be specified in a highly inflected language (Croatian), we model a description of representational levels and interfaces between them for nouns and verbs. Our analysis distinguishes between the need for specification of universal and language-specific features. Croatian has up to date been described with the grammar and lexicon divide in mind. Our presentation of nominal and verbal representational geometry that takes into account levels and interfaces specified already in the lexical form. The central goal of our talk is to present the representational geometry of Croatian pronouns, the most challenging group, because of their specific morphosyntactic status, especially in their clitic form. Although they were standardly treated as an exception of its kind in comparison to “regular” lexical items, we show that they can be fully described with the same tools as nouns and verbs. They differ only in the hierarchy of features. The comparison of number and the hierarchy of features needed to be specified for languages of distinct morphosyntactic richness (English and Croatian) enables us to establish the hierarchy of universal and language-specific features. Clear divide is visible among the number on one side and the gender and animacy on the other. Our proposal is to use this hierarchy as a baseline for experimental work on the variability and processing of all or some of these information already at the pre-sentence level.
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Although classic generative approaches build on the differentiation between the lexicon and the grammar, there are many theories (Cognitive Grammar, Langacker 1987 ; Emergent Grammar, Hopper 1987 ; Construction Grammar, Goldberg 1995, 2006 ; Parallel Architecture, Jackendoff 2002), particular insights (Schönefeld 2001 ; Haspelmath 2007, 2014), as well as experimental approaches (Bates and Goodman 1997 ; Hilpert 2008) that advocate the inseparability of grammar and lexicon. All of them depart from the principle distinction between the rules and the lexemes. The rules are no more treated as procedures, but as templates or schemas (pieces of structure with variables), which brings them closer to lexemes. Parallel Architecture, theoretical framework we work in, takes linguistic structure to be determined by three independent generative systems - phonology, syntax, and semantics, as well as the links between them. In PA there is no strict division between the lexicon and the grammar. Rather, words and standard rules are at the opposite corners of a multidimensional continuum that includes all sorts of mixed items such as idioms and meaningful constructions. Important consequence of this view is that semantics in not necessarily in a one-to-one relation to syntax, but most often in many-to-many relation, which needs to be explicitly stated. What that means is that at the sentence level, phonology, semantics and syntax are not derived from each other. Their mutual relations are established through interface rules, which are in some cases exhaustive and in others subject to variability. At the word level, every lexical item is a triple consisting of small pieces of phonological, syntactic and semantic structure (Jackendoff, 2002). That makes words prototypical interface rules. PA provides a framework for systematic treatment of both content words and function words as interface rules. Based on broadly understood agreement potential, we explore the applicability of the PA as a theoretical base for determining the set of necessary categorical relations within the lexicon, both at the morphosyntactic, as well as at the semantic level. First, in order to track down the features that need to be specified in a highly inflected language (Croatian), we model a description of representational levels and interfaces between them for nouns and verbs. Our analysis distinguishes between the need for specification of universal and language-specific features. Croatian has up to date been described with the grammar and lexicon divide in mind. Our presentation of nominal and verbal representational geometry that takes into account levels and interfaces specified already in the lexical form. The central goal of our talk is to present the representational geometry of Croatian pronouns, the most challenging group, because of their specific morphosyntactic status, especially in their clitic form. Although they were standardly treated as an exception of its kind in comparison to “regular” lexical items, we show that they can be fully described with the same tools as nouns and verbs. They differ only in the hierarchy of features. The comparison of number and the hierarchy of features needed to be specified for languages of distinct morphosyntactic richness (English and Croatian) enables us to establish the hierarchy of universal and language-specific features. Clear divide is visible among the number on one side and the gender and animacy on the other. Our proposal is to use this hierarchy as a baseline for experimental work on the variability and processing of all or some of these information already at the pre-sentence level.

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